Afro-Paraguayan are Paraguayans of African descent. They can be found in the city of Camba Cua outside Asuncion; Kamba Kokue outside of Paraguari, and the city of Emboscada. Currently, the Afro-Paraguayan population accounts for 2% of the total population. In the first decade of the 21st century the notion that Paraguay has no Black population still persists, despite the widely acclaimed Afro-Paraguayan dance group Ballet Kamba Cuá, which gives performances across the country and in neighboring countries, and whose celebration of St. Balthasar on January 6 attracts spectators from around the nation.
Some historians believe that the “neo-Africanization” of Camba Cua, and by extension Kamba Kokué and Emboscada, presents unquestionably a positive development for Paraguay’s afrodescendientes. To date the essence of Camba Cua culture is identified with drumming and the accompanying dance, while in Kamba Kokue and Emboscada only vague notions of a “Black” past form a common thread of identity, only recently supplemented by the activism of a handful of intellectuals. No element of language is associated with Afro-Paraguayan self-identity, with the exception of a lullaby thought to be in an African language which some Camba Cua community members assert has been part of the traditional culture, but which appears to have been taught by a visiting African artist.